Article eighteen

The following tells the story of car manufacturing, Hawaiian tradition, Learning Later in Life, tiny things, Sounds.

Article 1: The story of automobile manufacturing

Motor cars were first made in England just before 1900.

The parts of the bodies and engines were hand-made and the cars were built from these, one at a time.

This took a long time and the cars cost a lot of money. Then a quicker and cheaper way of making cars was found.

Instead of making all the parts at their own works, some car factories to make some them. All the parts were then fitted together in the car factories.

Modern car-making plants are so large that each one is really a lot of factories close together. Each workshop makes some parts.

The pieces of a car body are joined together by welder.

All the bits and pieces that make up each car are collected and put ready for the assembly line, where they are fitted together.

Article 2: Traditions in Hawaii

There are some special traditions in Hawaii. People are very friendly and always welcome visitors.

They give visitors a lei, a long necklace of beautiful fresh flowers. Men wear bright flowered shirts, and women often wear long flowered dresses.

There are traditional Chinese, Japanese and Philippines holidays and all the holidays from the United Sates.

They call Hawaii the Aloha State. Aloha means both hello and goodbye. It also means I love you.

Usually when people from different countries, races and traditions live together, there are serious problems.

There are a few problems in Hawaii, but, in general, people have learned to live together in peace.

Hawaiians get most of their money from visitors come from the mainland and from Japan.

There are so many people living in Hawaii now that there are residential areas where there used to be farms.

Some of the big sugar and apple companies have moved to the Philippines, where they do not have to pay workers much money.

The families of the first people who came from the U. S. mainland own the important banks and companies. Japanese are also buying or starting business.

Article 3: Learning Later in Life

It’s often said that we learn things at the wrong time. University students frequently do the minimum amount of work because they’re crazy for a good social life instead.

Children often scream before their piano practice because it’s so boring, have to be given gold stars and medals to be persuaded to swim, or have to be bribed to take exams.

But when you’re older? Ah, now that’s a different story.

Over the years, I’ve done my share of adult learning. At 30 I went to a college and did courses in History and English.

It was an amazing experience. For starters, I was paying, so there was no reason to be late — I was the one frowning and drumming my fingers if the teacher was delayed, not the other way round.

Indeed, if I could persuade him to linger, it was a prize, not a trouble. I wasn’t frightened to ask questions and homework was a pleasure not a pain.

When I passed, I had passed for me and me alone, not my parents or my teachers. The satisfaction I got was entirely personal.

Some people fear going back to school because they worry that their brains have got show.

But the joy is that, although some parts have been dull sometimes, your brain has learnt all kinds of other things since you were young.

It’s learnt to think independently and flexibly and is much better at relating one thing to another. What you lose in the dull department, you gain in the maturity department.

In some ways, age is a positive plus. For instance, when you’re older, you get more self-controlled.

Experience has told you that, if you’re calm and simply do something carefully again and again, at last you’ll get the hang of it.

The confidence you have in other areas—from being able to drive a car, perhaps—means that if you can’t, say, build a chair immediately, you don’t, like a child, want to destroy your first pitiful attempts. Maturity tells you that you will, with application, eventually get there.

Article 4: Tiny things

The smallest kids on Earth are much smaller than you or your baby brother or sister. They’re even smaller than the hairs on your head.

These tiny fellows are so small that 20 billion of them can fit into a jar, with lots of room to spare.

“We made a whole community of them,” says chemist James Tour of Rice University in Texas.“We call them Nanoputians.”

Also known as NanoKids, the NanoPutians aren’t real people. They are actually tiny molecules made to look a little bit like people.

Tour invented the Nanoputians as a way to teach kids about nanoscience, the study of extremely small things.

Nanoscience and nanotechnology have been getting more and more attention lately throughout the scientific world.

Researchers are using nanotechnology to develop super-fast computers, new medicines, amazing materials, and much, much more.

They’re looking to nanotechnology to help solve some of the world’s most serious health, environmental, and energy problems.

Nanoscience refers to the study of things that are smaller than about 100 or 200 nanometers.

The exact size is less important than the possible applications of working with such tiny things, Tour says.“Nanoscience is the study and development of the small so that it will affect the large,”he says.

One of the basic goals of nanotechnology research is to control individual atoms. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and other types of atoms are the building blocks of the universe. They make up planets, rocks, people, trees, CDs—all the stuff out there.

Most things that people build come together in a “top-down” way, Tour says.

If you want to make a table, for instance, you cut down a big tree, make wooden boards, and hammer them together.

Nature, on the other hand, builds things from the bottom up. When atoms join together, they make molecules.

Each molecule has a certain shape, and a molecule’s structure determines what it can do. Molecules can them come together to make a cell—or a tree.

Even though nanotechnology is on the cutting edge of scientific research, studying such small things can be challenging. It can also be fun and exciting.

Tour and his coworkers turned these molecular structures into cartoon figures and made an animated science video about the little people, set it to music, and started showing it to kids in school while talking about how exciting research on small things can be.

Learning about the NanoKids has opened up a world of possibility for real kids who ordinarily would rather not study biology, chemistry, or physics, Tour says.

When you look closely enough, the really small can be really cool.

Article 5: Sounds

What do you hear? Sounds all around you! You can hear the sound of traffic, the wind in the trees, a dog barking , your own breathing and lots of other things.

But what is sound? Sound happens when something vibrates or shakes. We can make something vibrate by hitting it.

Try this experiment . Put your ruler on your desk so that part of it sticks out over the edge .

Put your hand on the part of the ruler that is on the desk. Now pull the part that is sticking out over the edge down, and then let it go.

The part you let go will vibrate. It will move up and down very quickly, and give out sound.

The part of the ruler sticking out over the edge of the desk produced the sound. If you make that part longer, you will hear a lower sound.

When you shorten it, you will hear a higher sound. Why does this happen?

When you shorten the ruler, it will vibrate more quickly. When something vibrates more quickly it produces a higher sound.

If you lengthen the ruler, it will vibrate more slowly. When something vibrates more slowly, it produces a lower sound.

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