Article seventeen

The following talks about the destruction of the living environment of animals and plants, the house that used to be the post office, the source of Thanksgiving, the possibility of smoking after watching the movie, the sound situation, and the car accident.

Article 1: The deterioration of the living environment of animals and plants

Eco-tourism is causing a lot of damage to wildlife and may be endangering the survival of the very animals people go to see, according to researchers.

Experts are worried because polar bears, dolphins, penguins and other creatures are getting stressed and losing weight and some are dying.

“It has been proved that many animals do not react well to tourists in their backyard,” New Scientist magazines said.

The immediate effects researchers have noticed are changes in behavior, hear rates, or stress hormone levels but they fear it could get much worse and over the long term “could endanger the survival of the very wildlife they want to see.”

Although money produced through eco-tourism, which has been growing at about 10-30 percent a year, has major benefits for poor countries and people living in rural areas, the Swiss-based World Conservation Union and some government fear not all projects are audited and based on environmentally friendly policies, according to the magazine.

“Spread of disease to wildlife, or small changes to wildlife health through disturbance of daily life or increased stress levels, while not obvious to the careless observer, may translate to lower survival and breeding,” said Philip Seddon, of the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand.

Scientists have noticed that bottleneck dolphins along the northeastern coast of New Zealand become nervously excited when tourist boats arrive.

Similar changes in behavior have been observed in polar bears and yellow-eyed penguins in areas visited by eco-tourism projects are started.

“The animals’ welfare should be very important because without them there will be no eco-tourism,” said Rochelle Constantine of the University of Auckland in New Zealand.

Article 2: The house that was once a post office

Last month, Mr and Mrs Green moved. They are going to be very sorry that they ever did move. Their new mobile home is large and nice.

Why are they sorry they moved? They are tired of strangers walking into their new home at all hours of the business day.

People walk right in carrying letters and looking for the stamp machine. The people sometimes get angry when they can’t find what they want.

The Greens’ new mobile house is nice, but they have found that it has one problem. It used to be  a post office. When the post office moved to an-other place, the Greens moved in.

But many people didn’t pay attention to it. They continued to come to the same old place to post their letters and buy stamps.

Article 3: The Source of Thanksgiving

The fourth Thursday in November is called Thanksgiving Day. In the United States, it is an annual occasion to show thanks to God for his goodness.

As a historical, national and religious holiday, Thanksgiving Day began with the English in Plymouth Colony.

As far back as 1621, after a long bitter winter and the gathering of the first harvest, these early settlers shared a feast with the local Indians and offered prayers of thanks-giving.

The first national Thanksgiving Day was proclaimed by President Washington for November 26, 1789. President Lincoln revived the custom in 1863.

It was not until 1941 that the US Congress adopted a resolution, setting the fourth Thursday of November as an annual Thanksgiving Day.

Thus what began as a religious celebration of the harvest has since become a nationwide holiday.

Now Thanksgiving Day is usually a family day, celebrated with a traditional turkey dinner and a happy reunion. Schools are closed on Thanksgiving Day and the day after.

Many people, including students studying in another state, often travel long distances to spend the holiday at home.

Article 4: Possibility of smoking after watching a movie

Young teenagers are more likely to start smoking after seeing it in movies,according to a US study published recently.

More than one third of young people between the ages of 10 and 14 who tried smoking a cigarette did so as a direct result of exposure to movie smoking.

The study led by James Sargent, a doctor at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Centre in Hanover, New Hampshire, in the United States came out in Pediatrics.

They selected a representative US sample of 6, 522 youngsters. Overall, 10 percent of them had tried smoking.

The youths were divided into four groups, based on the amount of movie smoking to which they had been exposed.

The findings indicated no clear factor of race or geographical location with regard to the results.

But it discovered that as the amount of exposure to smoking in movies increased, the rate of smoking also increased.

That was “suggesting that exposure to movie smoking is the primary independent risk factor for starting to smoke in US teens in this age group,” the study’s authors said, “Limiting exposure of young people to movie smoking could have important public health implications”.

This is the first national study to indicate that young people have a higher risk of lighting up as their exposure to movie smoking increases,said the American Legacy Foundation.    

“Dr Sargent has once again provided scientific evidence about the effect of popular culture on the smoking habits of our youth, and all of us especially parents must play a role in keeping an eye on what our children see on the big screen,” said Cheryl Healdton, foundation president. “

We might already consider how language, violence or sexual content in movies affects children, but we must also think about how seeing smoking influences them, since it directly affects their health in such a negative way,” she said in a statement.

Article 5: The situation of the sound source

What do you hear? Sounds all around you! You can hear the sound of traffic, the wind in the trees, a dog barking , your own breathing and lots of other things.

But what is sound? Sound happens when something vibrates or shakes. We can make something vibrate by hitting it.

Try this experiment . Put your ruler on your desk so that part of it sticks out over the edge . Put your hand on the part of the ruler that is on the desk.

Now pull the part that is sticking out over the edge down, and then let it go. The part you let go will vibrate. It will move up and down very quickly, and give out sound.

The part of the ruler sticking out over the edge of the desk produced the sound. If you make that part longer, you will hear a lower sound.

When you shorten it, you will hear a higher sound. Why does this happen?

When you shorten the ruler, it will vibrate more quickly. When something vibrates more quickly it produces a higher sound.

If you lengthen the ruler, it will vibrate more slowly. When something vibrates more slowly, it produces a lower sound.

Article 6: Car accident

People enjoy talking about “firsts”. They like to remember their first love or their first car. But not all firsts are happy ones.

One of history’s bad but important firsts was the first car accident. Cars were still young when it happened.

The accident took place in New York City in May 1896. A man from Massachusetts was visiting the city in his new car.

At the time, bicycle riders were still trying to get used to the new set of wheels on the road. No one was sure who was to blame for it.

Anyway, the bike and the car hit each other hard. The man on the bike was injured.

The driver of the car had to stay in jail and wait for the hospital report on the bicycle rider. Luckily the rider was not killed.

Three years later, another car accident took place. It was again in New York City. A man named Henry Bliss stepped off a streetcar.

He was hit by a passing car. Once again, no one was sure just how it happened or whose fault it was.

The driver of the car was put in jail. Poor Mr Bliss became the first person to die in a car accident.

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