Article thirteen

The following talks about friends, the appearance of emotions, misunderstandings about eyes, water pollution, and water shortage.

Article 1: Friends

Friends play an important part in our lives. Although we may take friendship for granted, we often don’t clearly understand how to make friends.

While we get on well with a number of people, we are usually friends with only  a very few — for example, the average among students is about 6 per person.

In all the cases of friendly relationships, two people like one another and enjoy being together, but beyond that, the degree of intimacy between them and the reasons for their shared interests very greatly.

As we get to know people, we take into account things like age, race, economic condition, social position, and intelligence.

Although these factors are not of great importance, it is more difficult to get on with people when there is a marked difference in age and background.

Some friendly relationships can be kept on argument and discussion, but it is usual for close friends to have similar ideas and beliefs, the same opinions and interests—they often talk about “being on the same wavelength.

It generally takes time to reach this point. And the more intimately involved people become, the more they depend on one another.

People who want to be friends have to put up with annoying habits and to stand differences.

In contrast with marriages, there are no friendship ceremonies to strengthen the association between two people.

But the supporting and understanding of each other that results from shared experiences and emotions do seem to create a powerful bond, which can overcome differences in background, and break down barriers of age, class and race.

Article 2: The emergence of emotions

According to psychologists, an emotion is aroused when a man or animal views something as either bad or good.

When a person feels like running away from something he thinks will hurt him, we call this emotion fear.

If the person wants to remove the danger by attacking it, we call the emotion anger.

The emotions of joy and love are aroused when we think something can help us.

An emotion does not have to be created by something in the outside world; it can be created by a person’s thoughts.

Everyone has emotions. Many psychologists believe that infants are born without emotions.

They believe children learn emotions just as they learn to read and write. A growing child not only learns his emotions but learns how to act in certain situations because of an emotion.

Psychologists think that there are two types of emotions: positive and negative.

Positive emotions include love, liking, joy, delight, and hope. They are aroused by something that appeals to a person.

Negative emotions make a person unhappy or dissatisfied. They include anger, fear, despair, sadness and disgust.

In growing up, a person learns to cope with the negative emotions in order to be happy.

Emotions may be weak or strong. Some strong emotions are so unpleasant that a person will try any means to escape from them.

In order to feel happy, the person may choose unusual ways to avoid the emotion.

Strong emotions can make it hard to think and to solve problems. They may prevent a person from learning or paying attention to what he is doing.

For example, a student taking an examination may be so worried about failing that he cannot think properly.

The worry drains valuable mental energy he needs for the examination.

Article 3: Misunderstandings about the eyes

There are a number of myths about eyes and eye care. The following are some common misconceptions or false statements with the true facts afterwards.

Myths about Vision and Eyeglasses:

•Although eyeglasses make you see better, they make vision get worse over time.

Eyeglasses will need to be constantly changed with higher-powered one.

Overuse of the Eye or use of eye makes vision worse.

Eye exercises can improve vision.

Eating carrots can improve vision.

The Facts:

Of course it is possible that your eye power may also have increased as your age―but this increase would have happened regardless of whether you wore the glasses or not.

Using your eyes for any length of time does not make them weaker.you may get tired and may even get a headache with long reading hours, but these symptoms have nothing to do with eyes getting weaker.

There are no eye exercises that will help your eyes see better or that will prevent the nearsightedness from getting worse.

The article “Can Eye Exercises improve vision?” provides information on how the concept of eye exercises helping vision came about.

Some of the eye exercise methods are the “Yoga method” and the “See Clearly method”.

Carrots won’t improve eyesight for someone eating normal healthy food. However, carrots are rich in beta carotene, which is changed into Vitamin A in the body.

Vitamin A is important in maintaining normal vision, and even a little lack of Vitamin A can cause night blindness.

Therefore in the developing world, where lack of vitamin A is possible, eating carrots may be good advice.

Article 4: Water pollution

When the population of the port town began to suffer from poisoning, the police came to find the cause of the poison.

They thought someone was poisoning the people on purpose but no one knew how it was possible. Soon people took the position that the pork was poisoned.

It was a popular food everyone ate and it could have possibly made everyone sick. Anyone who had possession of pork would throw it out. Even the poorest of the poor wouldn’t eat pork.

Signs were posted on poles and letters were sent to everyone to warn people of the pork.

Shortly afterwards, even policemen in high positions were also getting sick.

Soon it became political and popular. Politicians rushed to the town to talk about politics and promised how they would find the solution if they were elected.

Everyone was so sick that they didn’t care about politics. Everyone was in a position where he or she didn’t know what to do anymore.

They went to the post office to mail posts out asking for help. The poor town didn’t know how to deal with the situation.

One day, a well-known scientist from New York came to the town with a huge box containing many instruments and his possessions.

He went to pools and the port and made measurements. He was quiet and polite. Then one day he made a speech at a newspaper meeting-room to announce his findings.

“I am sorry to say your water supply is so heavily polluted; it is poisoned. I know who has been poisoning you all for such a long time.

It is you who have been poisoning yourselves with pollution. A great deal of rubbish has been thrown into the water day after day.

No one here has taken good care of the environment. It is no wonder all of you have been sick.” Shocked at the news, the people present were lost in thought.

Article 5: Water shortage

The world is not only hungry; it is also thirsty for water. This may seem strange, since nearly 75 per cent of the earth’s surface is covered with water.

But about 97 per cent of this is seawater, or salt water. Man can only drink and use the other 3 per cent—the fresh water that comes from rivers, lakes, underground, and other sources.

And we cannot even use all of that, because some of it is in the form of icebergs and glaciers. Even worse, some of it has been polluted.

However, the need for water is increasing day by day. Only if steps are taken to deal with this problem now can we avoid a severe worldwide water shortage later on.

A limited water supply would affect agriculture and industry. So we should all learn how to stop wasting water.

One of the first steps is to develop ways to reuse it. Experiments have already been done in this field.

Today, in most large cities, water is used only once and then flows through pipes to the sea, or into underground tanks for waste water.

But it is possible to pipe water that has been used to a purifying plant.

There it can be separated from waste matter and treated with chemicals so that it can be used again, just as if it were fresh from a spring.

But even if every large city purified and reused its water, there still would not be enough. Other sources would have to be found. Where could people turn to next?

The oceans seem to offer the best answer. There is plenty of water in the oceans.

All that needs to be done is to remove the salt from the seawater.

This process is expensive but it is already in use in many parts of the world. Research is going on to make the process cheaper.

So you see, if we take these steps we’ll be in no danger of drying up!

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