The following talks about the founding and ending of the Ming Dynasty, tax collection system, scientific and technological inventions, overseas trade and the Great Wall.
Who founded ming dynasty
Zhu Yuanzhang, also known as the Hongwu Emperor.
How ming dynasty started
At the end of the Yuan Dynasty, the uprising of the Red Turbans led by Han Shantong and Liu Futong broke out.
In 1352, Guo Zixing responded by gathering people to revolt and capturing Haozhou.
Tang He invited Zhu Yuanzhang from a poor family to see Guo Zixing.
Later, He won many military achievements and was highly regarded and trusted by Guo Zixing.
After that, He married Guo Zixing’s adopted daughter.
After Guo Zixing died of illness, Zhu Yuanzhang commanded his army.
In 1356, Zhu Yuanzhang captured Jiqing (now Nanjing), renamed it Yingtian, and captured the surrounding strategic points to gain a foothold.
Since then, Zhu Yuanzhang has continued to expand his power.
In 1363, Zhu Yuanzhang defeated Chen Youliang in a water war over Poyang Lake.
In 1364, Zhu Yuanzhang became the King of Wu and initially established the regime.
In 1367, Zhu Yuanzhang defeated Zhang Shicheng, who ruled Pingjiang (now Suzhou).
In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang proclaimed himself emperor in Yingtian (now Nanjing) and founded the Ming Dynasty.
In the same year, he ordered Xu Da, Chang Yuchun and other generals to go on a northern expedition to capture the capital of the Yuan Dynasty, Dadu (now Beijing).
Then the rule of the Yuan Dynasty in China came to an end.
How ming dynasty ended
In 1644, Emperor Chongzhen hanged himself, and the Ming Dynasty officially ended.
There are many internal and external reasons for the demise of the Ming Dynasty.
1. In the late Ming Dynasty, most emperors had no ability to govern the country.
2. There are many corrupt officials who exploit the property of the common people and make them unable to live.
3.Most of the eunuchs who helped the emperor govern the country at that time were cruel and licentious.
They killed loyal officials, scraped civilian wealth, and colluded with the enemy for their own interests.
4. In the late Ming Dynasty, the army was poorly equipped and no disciplined, and most of the generals were incompetent.
5. Although emperor Chongzhen wanted to make the Ming Dynasty strong again, he did not have enough ability.
Having said some internal causes, let’s move on to external causes.
1. During the reign of emperor Chongzhen, the natural disasters were serious. Many people starved to death.
In the face of this situation, ming dynasty also increased efforts to exploit the property of the people, leading to a large number of peasant uprisings.
2. The peasant uprising army is powerful and numerous, which is difficult to deal with.
3. The Qing Dynasty restrained the army of the Ming Dynasty, which made it difficult for the Ming Dynasty to defeat the peasant uprising army.
How did ming dynasty collect taxes
Ming Dynasty tax 1: farmland tax converted into silver
In the early Ming Dynasty, farmland tax was divided into summer tax and autumn tax.
Summer taxes are levied in August and autumn taxes in February.
The articles collected were mainly grain, supplemented by money and gold and silver cloth.
With the intensification of land privatization and the serious tax evasion, the reform of farmland tax has been carried out gradually.
After a series of farmland tax reforms, silver was finally established as the main collection of goods.
Ming dynasty tax 2: miscellaneous service tax
In Ming Dynasty, the age of corvee labor was 16 years old and ended at 60 years old.
If you served, you were not taxed, and if you did not serve, you were taxed in silver.
In addition to these two kinds of taxes, the late Ming Dynasty also levied three kinds of taxes.
The main purpose of levying these three taxes was to make the Ming army strong.
But how could the ordinary people at that time have the money to pay so many taxes?
Therefore, these taxes can also be said to be part of the reason for the demise of the Ming Dynasty.
What did ming dynasty invent
The Ming Dynasty was the most advanced country in the world at that time.
It made many scientific and technological achievements in shipbuilding, astronomy, medicine, mathematics, chemistry and agriculture.
The ships built in the Ming Dynasty were well designed and well equipped.
The largest was about 147 meters long and 60 meters wide, and could accommodate 1,000 crew members.
There were many scientific works in the middle and late Ming Dynasty, such as Li Shizhen’s Compendium of Materia Medica, Song Yingxing’s Tiangong Kaiwu, Xu Guangqi’s Nongzheng Quanshu, Cheng Dawei’s Suan Fa Tong Zong, and Wu Shengwei’s Plague Theory.
The earliest oil well in the world was built in Jiazhou, Sichuan Province in the Ming Dynasty in 1521.
In 1549, the Ming Dynasty developed the world’s first water mine.
In 1567, the Ming Dynasty discovered that smallpox could be prevented by cowpox.
In 1596, the Ming Dynasty mined mines by means of explosions.
In 1637, Song Yingxing gave a scientific explanation of the production and transmission of sound.
He believed that sound was generated by the vibration or rapid movement of objects impacting the air and transmitted through the air, which was very similar to the modern theory.
In addition, Sun Yunqiu, a manufacturer of optical instruments at that time, produced dozens of optical instruments such as magnifying glasses and microscopes.
Why did ming dynasty restrict trade with Europe
The 15th and 16th centuries witnessed the rise of world ocean exploration.
In this era, both east and west set off a wave of seafaring upsurge.
In the east, the Ming Dynasty organized a huge fleet of Zheng He‘s seven voyages to the Western Seas. Zheng’s fleet reached as far east as Africa.
In the west, the great sailing movement broke out in Europe, and countless European explorers and navigators marched into the sea one after another.
They discovered the American continent, established trading posts all over the world, seized ports and colonies on the shipping routes, and completed the primitive accumulation through colonial expansion and maritime trade.
In fact, both the Ming Dynasty and the European countries made huge profits through maritime trade.
But what puzzles people is, why did the Ming Dynasty enforce a maritime ban when maritime trade was so profitable?
First, the Ming Dynasty was a traditional agricultural country, and agriculture played a dominant role in social production.
As the Ming Dynasty was a self-sufficient peasant economy, the external dependence of the Ming Dynasty was very low.
Although a certain amount of profit could be made from the maritime trade, the rulers were most concerned with maintaining their rule.
To enforce their rule, they imposed strict household registration system.
Under this system, farmers need a permit to leave their hometown.
Although businessmen are more free than farmers, they are not only restricted in production, but also restricted in trade.
Second, although there appeared the germ of capitalism in the Ming Dynasty, it was still a feudal and backward agricultural society in essence.
This backward social system has restricted the development of overseas trade.
This, in turn, was the lack of motivation for foreign trade and expansion in the Ming Dynasty.
The Ming Dynasty did not need overseas goods or markets, and its rulers were more afraid of the loss of population and wealth from overseas trade.
As a result, overseas trade was limited to limited official trade.
The main commodities of trade are luxuries rather than necessities.
This trade can satisfy the rulers’ needs for enjoyment, but it does not help the people or the country.
Third, another reason for the Ming Dynasty’s implementation of the ban was the monopoly of overseas trade.
As private overseas trade was prohibited, the Ming Dynasty monopolized overseas commodities in China through Zheng He’s voyages to the Western Seas and vassal states paying tribute, and gained huge profits through monopoly.
However, this monopoly was soon challenged by private smuggling, which made Zheng He’s voyaging to the Western Seas unprofitable and forced the Ming Dynasty to stop Zheng He’s voyaging.
Although Zheng He’s voyages were terminated, the Maritime Embargo was not lifted.
The reason was that the Jiangnan scholar-bureaucrat group openly obstructed the opening of the sea, because they were the biggest beneficiaries of smuggling activities.
They acted as the protection umbrella of the smugglers and even Japanese pirates, and gained huge returns from it.
It was precisely because of the destruction and obstruction of scholar-officials that the maritime prohibition policy continued until the end of the Ming Dynasty.
why did the ming dynasty fund the Starfleet
Because the star Fleet was able to give jobs to many Chinese peasants so they wouldn’t rebel.
In addition, in this way, the Ming Dynasty could show off its great power to the countries along the way and make profits through trade.
Another theory is that the emperor was looking for his predecessor (Zhu Yunwen).
Why is he looking for Zhu Yunwen?
Because Zhu Yunwen is missing, he is afraid that he has gone overseas.
ming dynasty and the great wall
Many dynasties in China built the Great Wall for various reasons. The Ming dynasty built the Great Wall to prevent the invasion of the northern nomads
The Ming Dynasty attached great importance to this aspect of construction. During the reign of this dynasty, this aspect of the project was almost uninterrupted.
The greatest role of the Great Wall is that when facing the invasion of hundreds of nomads, the great wall can play a good defensive role, so that agricultural production will not be damaged.
However, in the face of the attack of tens of thousands of troops, the role of the great wall becomes to delay time and wait for the defensive forces to gather to confront.