The following talks about the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, trade, and the relationship with the Joseon, the situation in the 1800s, painting and architecture, the Great Wall, Boxer Rebellion and Gunpowder.
How Qing Dynasty started
The Qing Dynasty appeared in 1636, and its predecessor was the Later Jin Dynasty.
In 1616, Nurhaci established the Later Jin Dynasty. In 1636, Nurhaci’s son Hong Taiji changed the name to the Qing Dynasty.
In 1644, when the Ming Dynasty collapsed, General Wu Sangui surrendered to the Qing army and opened the Shanhai pass he was guarding.
Regent Prince Dorgon led the Qing army into the Pass. In the same year, Qing Dynasty replaced the Ming Dynasty as the ruler of China.
What did Qing Dynasty trade
The main foreign trade commodities in the Qing Dynasty were porcelain, silk and tea.
When the Qing Dynasty was founded, it only allowed western merchant ships to trade in Macao.
Later, the Qing Dynasty relaxed the sea ban policy, allowing foreign merchants to trade at designated ports and developed a system of administration.
Since the Qing Dynasty had little need for goods from foreign merchants, but foreign merchants liked Qing Dynasty goods, the Qing Dynasty acquired a large amount of silver.
As the quantity of silver increased, the commodity price of the Qing Dynasty rose.
However, only a few people benefit from trade, while the majority of the people not only cannot benefit from trade, but also face rising commodity price.
In addition, the Qing Dynasty at that time did not allow ordinary people to go abroad for business, and felt that it was not safe for too many foreign businessmen to come, so it decided to open only Guangzhou as a trading port.
After the British defeated the Qing Dynasty and made it sign unequal treaties, the Qing Dynasty was forced to open four more trading ports such as Shanghai, Ningbo, Fuzhou and Xiamen.
Where did the Qing Dynasty come from
The Qing Dynasty came from Liaoning Province and developed and grown here.
Before unifying China, the Qing Dynasty had already fought many wars with the Ming Dynasty.
At that time, the Ming Dynasty was already in decline, and it was facing both the peasant uprising and the Qing Dynasty’s attack, so it finally collapsed.
Qing dynasty and Joseon
Before the Qing Dynasty was established, Joseon was a vassal state of the Ming Dynasty.
In 1636, the Qing Dynasty asked Joseon to become its own vassal state, but Joseon did not agree to the request.
Therefore, Hong Taiji personally led the army to occupy Joseon. After Joseon agreed to become its own vassal state, Hong Taiji left Joseon.
What was the Qing Dynasty like at the beginning of the 1800s
The emperor at this time was Jiaqing Emperor.
The major events that occurred in the past decade included Chen De’s attempted assassination of Jiaqing Emperor, the complete suppression of the White Lotus, and the promulgation of a policy of banning opium.
The life of the people in this period was very difficult. The assassin Chen De who assassinated Jiaqing Emperor was a cook before, but after he was fired, he could only face starvation to death.
Among the two options of starving to death and assassinating the emperor, he chose to assassinate.
However, not only did he not succeed in the assassination, but he was ended up being executed by Lingchi (a kind of torture in China).
From the fact that a chef can only face starvation after being fired, it can be seen that the Qing Dynasty at that time has already had signs of destruction.
Qing Dynasty art and architecture
Qing Dynasty painting
Under the influence of politics, economy, ideology, culture and other aspects at that time, Qing dynasty painting showed a specific era style.
Scroll painting continues the trend since Yuan and Ming, literati painting and freehand ink painting is popular, landscape painting is flourishing.
Literati painting presents two trends of reverence for ancient times and innovation.
They have different pursuits in terms of subject matter, ideological interest, pen and ink skills, etc., and have formed numerous styles and genres.
Palace paintings also achieved greater development during the Kangxi and Qianlong periods, and showed a new style different from that of Ming Dynasty palace paintings.
The achievements of New Year pictures and prints are the most prominent in folk paintings, presenting an unprecedented prosperous situation.
The historical process of the development of painting in the Qing Dynasty is related to the development and changes of the entire society and can be divided into three periods: early, middle and late.
In the early days, the four kings were the representatives of the anti orthodox painters in Jiangnan, including Kun can, Shi Tao, Zhu Da and Hong Ren.
The eight schools in Jinling represented by Gong Xian, the Xin’an school represented by cha Shibiao and Mei Qing, etc.
In the middle period, there was a prosperous age of Kangxi and Qianlong, painting also developed greatly, and figure painting was the most outstanding achievement.
At the same time in Yangzhou, where the commodity economy is developed, a new artistic trend has been set off, and Yangzhou painting school represented by Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou has formed, which has had a profound impact on modern flower and bird painting.
In the later period, China gradually degenerated into a semi colonial and semi feudal society, and great changes took place in the painting world.
It has formed a new painting style with new skills and new styles centered on new commercial cities.
There are mainly Haipai represented by Si Ren and Lingnan School represented by Guangdong Ju Lian, Ju Chao, Gao Jianfu and Gao Qifeng.
Qing Dynasty buildings
The architecture of this period generally followed the traditions of the Ming Dynasty, but there were also developments and innovations, and the buildings were more exquisite and gorgeous.
The architectural forms of Qing Dynasty included Gable roof, East Asian hip-and-gable roof, Tented roof and so on.
In the late Qing Dynasty, some Chinese and Western style buildings appeared in China.
Beijing, the capital of the Qing Dynasty, basically maintained its original state during the Ming Dynasty.
There are 20 tall and majestic gates in the city. The most majestic is the Zhengyang Gate in the inner city.
Because the imperial palaces of the Ming Dynasty were used, the emperors of the Qing Dynasty built large-scale imperial gardens.
These garden buildings are the essence of Qing Dynasty architecture, including the gorgeous Yuanming Palace and the Summer Palace.
In the case of the Qing Dynasty building complex, the level of group layout and decoration design has reached mature.
Especially garden architecture has a very high level in processing and changing shapes in combination with terrain or space.
During this period, there were still innovations in architectural skills, mainly in the introduction and use of glass and the progress of masonry construction.
During this period, Chinese residential buildings were rich and colorful, and there were more flexible and free-style buildings.
The unique Tibetan Buddhist architecture flourished during this period.
These Buddhist temples have diverse shapes, breaking the traditional single stylized processing of the original temple architecture, creating a variety of architectural forms, represented by a number of Tibetan Buddhist temples built in Beijing and Chengde.
Qing Dynasty boxer rebellion
The Boxer Movement was a completely spontaneous non-governmental movement that took place in China at the end of the 19th century with the slogan “Helping the Qing Dynasty and exterminate foreign invaders”.
It was mainly aimed at Western invaders and their vassals in China.
Facing the invasion of the Eight-Nation Alliance , the Boxer Rebellion received support from the Qing government and resisted heroically.
At the same time, they caused serious damage to the achievements of China’s modernization since the 1860s.Their destruction is manifested in the destruction of railways and the destruction of electric lights.
The Boxer has a strong mysticism. It mobilizes the masses by drawing amulets and reciting mantras and inviting gods to possess them, and widely promotes “holding amulets and recite mantras and possessing gods” to inspire fighting spirit.
In addition to Buddhism and Taoism, the gods they believe in include gods, monsters and characters in novels, operas, and folk tales.
Qing Dynasty great wall
Compared with the previous dynasties, the construction of the Great Wall in the Qing Dynasty is very different.
China has a long history of building the Great Wall, but from the Qin Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty, it was only used to limit the advantages of the northern national cavalry.
Due to the restrictions of the Great Wall, nomads cannot easily harass the border. Even if they cross the Great Wall stealthily, they are worried that the troops to rely on the Great Wall to cut off the way back and have to adopt a strategy of quick fight.
The Great Wall of the Qing Dynasty is different from the Great Wall of the Ming Dynasty and the Great Walls of the previous dynasties. It is a tool used to suppress the peasant uprisings internally and prevent the invasion of Mongolia.
The construction of the Great Wall in the Qing Dynasty was a temporary measure.
It was relatively crude and function was single. Therefore, it was rarely mentioned, and it could not be compared with the Ming Great Wall.
Qing Dynasty gunpowder
In the Qing Dynasty, the management of gunpowder manufacturing was very strict, and the process of making gunpowder of different grades was also different.
Generally speaking, gunpowder is divided into three categories in terms of fineness and coarseness.
The raw materials used in their production are also different, but they are all responsible for the government agencies that specialize in gunpowder management.
For example, when making the best gunpowder, an iron mortar is used to hold the raw materials, and workers hold a wooden pestle to pound it more than 10,000 times.