The background of the establishment of the xin dynasty
In Ad 2, drought and locusts occurred in the Central Plains.
Since the founding of the Western Han Dynasty more than 200 years ago, the aristocrats and the powerful continued to annex land and exploit the peasants.
When the famine happened, the common people could not survive and rose to revolt one after another.
Wang Mang’s action
In order to ease the people’s resentment against the court and officials, Wang Mang suggested that the court should economize on food and clothing.
He first took out a large amount of money and 30 hectares of land as the cost of relief.
After seeing Wang Mang’s action, some nobles and ministers had to take out some land and money..
Soon after, the Empress Dowager rewarded Wang Mang with more than 20000 hectares of land.
However, Wang Mang refused these rewards.
Then, Wang Mang sent eight ministers to different places to publicize his refusal to accept the fiefdom.
At that time, the vast majority of people hated those who annexed the land.
When they heard that Wang Mang didn’t even want the land granted to him, they thought he was a good man.
The more Wang Mang refused to take the land, the more people asked the Empress Dowager to give it to him.
In addition, people at that time praised Wang Mang in various ways.
The more people flattered Wang Mang, the more emperor Hanping thought Wang Mang was terrible.
One day, the ministers gave emperor Hanping a birthday. Wang Mang personally presented a cup of poisonous wine to Emperor Hanping.
Emperor Hanping didn’t doubt it. He took it and drank it.
The next day, word came from the palace that emperor Hanping died of illness.
Emperor Hanping was only 14 years old when he died, leaving no descendants.
Therefore, Wang Mang found a two-year-old child as the crown prince. And he called himself the acting emperor.
Some civil and military officials wanted to be the founding fathers and urged Wang Mang to become emperor.
Wang Mang also believed that being a real emperor was better than acting emperor. So he asked a group of people to do a lot of superstitious things to legitimize his behavior.
In 8 ad, Wang Mang officially became emperor.
Since then, the Western Han Dynasty, which began with emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty, ended.
Wang Mang’s reform
After Wang Mang became emperor, he established the Xin Dynasty and ordered reform under the guise of retro reform.
（The capital was in Chang’an as in the Western Han Dynasty）
First, land is not allowed to be traded; second, servants are not allowed to trade; third, monetary system reform.
These reforms sound like good things. But everything’s bad.
Why is this? Because these reforms have damaged the interests of vested interests, and Wang Mang’s supporters are exactly these vested interests.
Three years later, Wang Mang gave an order to cancel the reform.
In addition, Wang Mang increased the tax rate, connived at the cruel officials, and increased the punishment on the common people.
In this way, people have to rise up to resist.